Intelligence Interconnection in The Democratic Transition in Indonesia

Authors

  • Reza Ilham Maulana Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Sapto Hermawan Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Asianto Nugroho Universitas Sebelas Maret

Keywords:

Democracy, Indonesia, Intelligence, Democratic Transition

Abstract

Democracy has faced various challenges over thousands of years, particularly concerning transitions that depend on social and political factors. The role of intelligence in democratic transitions is crucial but can be used to maintain power undemocratically. In Indonesia, post-reform, democracy has not been fully consolidated. The repressiveness of law enforcement and legal bias towards political elites are major factors in the decline of democracy. This research employs a normative legal research method with a prescriptive nature, aiming to analyze the intelligence's involvement in the democratic transition process in Indonesia. The research approach encompasses analytical, historical, comparative, and philosophical dimensions. Primary legal materials such as legislation regulations are utilized as data sources, alongside secondary legal materials like books and journals. Data collection techniques utilize the PRISMA method, and data analysis is conducted deductively using the same method. The findings of this research indicate that the cycle of democratic transition influences both the democratic system and intelligence activities. Subsequently, a case study in Indonesia examines complex intelligence issues, attributable to regime changes and inconsistent political policies. Hence, a comparative study with Brazil, which is institutionally more complex and structured, is deemed necessary.

References

Antunes, PCB (2009). 8. Establishing Democratic Control of Intelligence in Argentina. In 8. Establishing Democratic Control of Intelligence in Argentina (pp. 195–218). University of Texas Press. https://doi.org/10.7560/716605-011

Arugay, A. A. (2020). Democratic Transitions. Dalam S. Romaniuk & P. Marton (Ed.), The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies (hlm. 1–7). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_190-1

Beetham, D. (1994). Conditions for Democratic Consolidation. Review of African Political Economy, 21(60), 157–172.

Boraz, S. C., & Bruneau, T. C. (2006). Reforming Intelligence: Democracy and Effectiveness. Journal of Democracy, 17(3), 28–42. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2006.0042

Breakspear, A. (2013). A New Definition of Intelligence. Intelligence and National Security, 28(5), 678–693. https://doi.org/10.1080/02684527.2012.699285

Caparini, M. (2007). Controlling and Overseeing Intelligence Services in Democratic States. Dalam Democratic Control of Intelligence Services. Routledge.

Cepik, M. (2007). Structural Change and Democratic Control of Intelligence in Brazil. Dalam T. C. Bruneau & S. C. Boraz (Ed.), Obstacles to Democratic Control and Effectiveness (hlm. 149–169). University of Texas Press. https://doi.org/doi:10.7560/716605-009

Cepik, M., & Ambros, C. (2014). Intelligence, Crisis, and Democracy: Institutional Punctuations in Brazil, Colombia, South Africa, and India. Intelligence and National Security, 29(4), 523–551. https://doi.org/10.1080/02684527.2014.915176

Diamond, L. (2015). In Search of Democracy. Routledge.

Fung, E. S. K. (2000). In Search of Chinese Democracy: Civil Opposition in Nationalist China, 1929-1949. Cambridge University Press.

Ginsburg, T. (2018). Democratic Backsliding and the Rule of Law. OHIONORTHERN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW, 44.

Griffo, C., Sales, T. P., Guizzardi, G., & Almeida, J. P. A. (2022). Legal Power-Subjection Relations: Ontological Analysis and Modeling Pattern. Dalam J. Ralyté, S. Chakravarthy, M. Mohania, M. A. Jeusfeld, & K. Karlapalem (Ed.), Conceptual Modeling (hlm. 65–81). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-17995-2_5

Hadjon, P. M., & Martosoewignyo, R. S. S. (2008). Pengantar Hukum Administrasi Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press.

Huber, E., Rueschemeyer, D., & Stephens, J. D. (1993). The Impact of Economic Development on Democracy. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(3), 71–86. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.7.3.7 1

Huntington, Samuel. P. (1991). Democracy’s Third Wave. Journal of Democracy, 2(2), 12–34. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1991.0016

Huntington, Samuel. P. (2009). How Countries Democratize. Political Science Quarterly, 124(1), 31–69. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-165X.2009.tb00641.x

Ibrahim, J. (2006). Teori dan Metodologi Penelitian Hukum Normatif. Bayu Media Pubi.

Jaggers, K., & Gurr, T. R. (1995). Tracking Democracy’s Third Wave with the Polity III Data. Journal of Peace Research, 32(4), 469–482.

Linz, J. J. (1978). The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes: Crisis, Breakdown and Reequilibration. An Introduction. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Linz, J. J. (1990). Transitions to democracy. The Washington Quarterl, 143–164.

Lipscomb, B. J. B. (2005). Power and Authority in Pufendorf. History of Philosophy Quarterly, 22(3), 201–219.

Lutterbeck, D. (2015). Tool of rule: The Tunisian police under Ben Ali. The Journal of North African Studies, 20(5), 813–831. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2015.1059324

Mainwaring, D. S., Scott. (1987). Transitions Through Transaction: Democratization in Brazil and Spain. Dalam Political Liberalization In Brazil. Routledge.

Meng, A. (2020). Constraining Dictatorship: From Personalized Rule to Institutionalized Regimes. Cambridge University Press.

Paxton, P. (2000). Women’s suffrage in the measurement of democracy: Problems of operationalization. Studies in Comparative International Development, 35(3), 92–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02699767

Poe, S. C., Tate, C. N., & Keith, L. C. (1999). Repression of the Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Cross-National Study Covering the Years 1976-1993. International Studies Quarterly, 43(2), 291–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/0020-8833.00121

Repucci, S., & Slipowitz, A. (2023). The Global Expansion of Authoritarian Rule. Freedom House. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2022/global-expansion-authoritarian-rule

Roemer, J. E. (1985). Rationalizing Revolutionary Ideology. Econometrica, 53(1), 85–108. https://doi.org/10.2307/1911726

Rusdiana, D., Ali, Y., Thamrin, S., & Widodo, R. (2021). DEFENSE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN ISLAND COUNTRIES TO SUPPORT NATIONAL DEFENSE. Academia Praja: Journal of Political Science, Government and Public Administration , 4 (2), Article 2. https://doi.org/10.36859/jap.v4i2.629

Sartori, G. (1987). The Theory of Democracy Revisited (Part 1) . Chatham House Publishers.

Shulsky, A.N., & Schmitt, G.J. (2002). Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (3rd edition). POTOMAC BOOKS.

Simon, S. E. (2005). A Review of: “Democratization and Taiwan's Intelligence Agencies.” International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence , 18 (3), 571–573. https://doi.org/10.1080/08850600590945533

Situmorang, ST, Pakpahan, J., & Panjaitan, B. (2010). People Forced to Defeat: Whose Rulers and Security Apparatus Do They Own? Indonesian Obor Foundation.

Warner, M. (2019). Wanted: A definition of 'intelligence.' In Secret Intelligence (2 ed.). Routledge.

Zafer, M.R. (1994). Jurisprudence: An Outline . International Law Book Services.

Downloads

Published

2024-04-03

How to Cite

Reza Ilham Maulana, Sapto Hermawan, & Asianto Nugroho. (2024). Intelligence Interconnection in The Democratic Transition in Indonesia. International Journal of Law and Society, 1(2), 25–36. Retrieved from https://international.appihi.or.id/index.php/IJLS/article/view/20